Active Ingredient: Azithromycin
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We hypothesized that population level consumption of antimicrobials plays a role. Results: The association between antimicrobial resistance and consumption at the level of individual countries was positive in all six assessments.
In four instances the positive associations were statistically significant cephalosporins : coefficient 0. Background Recent reports of combined high level resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin in N.
To prevent this we need to optimally understand the underlying determinants of antimicrobial resistance AMR and why AMR has emerged in certain populations but not others.
An array of in vitro and individual-level studies have established a link between antimicrobial exposure and the development of AMR 2 — 8.
These individual level studies have not however explained the striking geographic and social clustering in the emergence of AMR 5, 9 — 11.
AMR has been noted to frequently first emerge in core-groups sex workers or men who have sex with men but more often in core-groups in particular locales 5, 10. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins hence termed cephalosporins was first documented in Japan in 7.
By a third of Ng isolates exhibited decreased sensitivity to cefixime 13. The spread of these resistant Ng strains to other countries has been extensively documented and is one explanation for the frequent emergence of AMR on the West coast of the United 5, 12.
What remains incompletely explained is why AMR to cephalosporins appeared first in Japan when there was little difference in the Ng treatment algorithm in Japan compared to elsewhere 13.
For a number of bacteria, striking ecological correlations have been found between the prevalence of antimicrobial consumption and resistance to that antimicrobial 14 — 17.
Background Recent reports of combined high level resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin in N.