Active Ingredient: Gabapentin
Moreover, personality traits are thought to be associated with response to antidepressants treatment that might partly be mediated by genetic factors. In this study, we examined whether polygenic scores PGSs derived from the Big Five personality traits predict treatment response and remission in patients with MDD who were prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs.
Only the PGS for openness showed a significant association with both treatment response and remission. The PGS for conscientiousness was associated with better treatment response, but not with remission.
The PGS for neuroticism predicted lower odds of treatment remission, but not poorer treatment response. At face value, these findings suggest that openness and neuroticism could play more important roles in predicting ultimate remission from depressive episodes, whereas conscientiousness might drive early treatment effects rather than longer term outcomes.
However, another explanation is that our cohorts might have been underpowered to detect more consistent effects, or that some of the observed associations were chance findings, perhaps driven by multiple testing.
In all, our genetic findings are in line with previous clinical investigations of the influence of personality characteristics on antidepressant treatment response in MDD. A study in Japan revealed as depressed patients who were resistant to treatment had a higher neuroticism score and lower scores for openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion than patients who remitted and healthy controls 26.
In another study, higher clinical scores for openness at baseline were associated with improved treatment response to antidepressants, whereas a higher score for neuroticism was associated with poor treatment outcomes 53.
More generally, poor treatment response was associated with personality dysfunction in a large sample study of more than 8,000 antidepressant-treated adults with MDD 27.
Similarly, a meta-analysis of 34 clinical studies concluded that MDD patients with a comorbid personality disorder had double the risk of overall poor clinical and treatment outcomes, compared to patients no co-occurring personality disorder 54.
Additionally, previous studies have shown genetic correlations between Big Five personality traits and psychiatric disorders and the PGS for neuroticism was significantly associated with MDD 55.
Since the PGS association reflects a shared genetic etiology, we applied cross-trait GWAS meta-analyses by combining summary statistics on SSRI treatment outcomes with personality traits, and identified eight overlapping genetic loci.
Previously, a gene expression analysis in depressed patients further replicated in mice found lower levels of YEATS 4 in depressed patients compared to healthy controls.
Moreover, the expression level of this gene was correlated with the dose of imipramine a tricyclic antidepressant 56. The CRHR 1 gene encodes a G-protein coupled receptor that binds with the neuropeptides of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone family, a major regulator of the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal pathway 57.
Functional gene polymorphisms in the CRHR 1 gene have been associated with SSRIs treatment response 58, and it moderates the association of maltreatment with neuroticism 59. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone signaling has previously been implicated in mood disorders and treatment response to antidepressants 60.
Another gene showing shared associations with SSRI treatment response and neurotic personality is MSRA, which has shown the highest levels of expression in brain tissue 61.
Previous studies reported that genetic variants within the MSRA gene could be associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder 62, 63, executive cognitive function 64, fluid intelligence 63, and self-reported irritable temperament 65.
Overall, these findings lend further weight to our PGS analyses and reinforce the idea that certain gene polymorphisms have a dual impact on personality structure and antidepressant treatment outcomes in MDD.
Studying the individual mechanism of each significant genetic locus in relation to antidepressants in the future studies might lead to novel insights in the molecular underpinnings of these drugs.
In conclusion, our study provides evidence in the potential ability of the PGS for the Big Five personality traits to elucidate shared biological mechanisms and to predict SSRI treatment outcomes.
Whether these PGSs could be applied to everyday clinical practice in the future relies on their ability to stratify MDD patients into categories of good treatment responders versus nonresponders.
Here Minter focuses on how girls are trained at an early age to look critically at their bodies, only to see themselves as flawed. The fashion world is full of male fashion house owners, designers, and photographers who create an image of being female.
According to prescribing information, some common side effects with Gabapentin are difficulty walking or controlling muscle movement, tremors, fatigue, weakness, nausea, slurred speech, water retention in the legs, and weight gain.
If the prescribed medication is not helping your condition, consult with your physician and discuss your concerns.