Active Ingredient: Gabapentin
For studying various brain disorders, zebrafish Danio rerio are gaining importance and emerging as a promising model organism Guo et al.
Seizure-like behavioral responses can be induced in adult zebrafish by several pharmacological approaches and there is an increasing trend of utilizing zebrafish model in epilepsy research Kalueff et al.
They are smaller in size and easy to maintain. Furthermore, it is a diurnal species with several fundamental similarities to humans Stewart et al.
As there is a limited spectrum of antiepileptic drugs AEDs available. A lot of patients are resistant to the existing therapy and many suffer from drug related comorbidities.
In order to develop safe and efficient AEDs, there is a lack of model systems that fully recapitulate the condition of epilepsy induced cognitive dysfunction Phillips and Westerfield,.
Zebrafish as an alternative to existing animal models is gaining popularity in the field of cognitive research. There are several reports which provide strong evidence on the usefulness of zebrafish model for studying cognitive functions Stewart and Kalueff,.
Mussulini et al. Whereas, IP injection in adult zebrafish was introduced by Kinkel et al. Nonetheless, tank water method do not give any idea about how much of the drug is actually absorbed or taken up by the fish Kinkel et al.
This route is of greater significance in order to correlate drug concentration to the efficacy and also important in metabolic studies Traver et al. Intraperitoneal injection is relatively safe with zero mortality when tested in our laboratory.
In the present study, we have used seizsure score as described by Mussulini et al.
This indicates the positive role of AEDs in preventing the seizure episode in patients Patsalos et al. Latency to seizure score 4 is the time required by the fish to reach seizure score 4 in a given time frame of 600 s.
Seizure scores mimic the clinical condition in the patients Huang et al. Higher the score, more intense is the seizure episode.
All the AEDs significantly helped in reducing the severity of the seizures as indicated by seizure score less than 2. It is also depicted by locomotor pattern as described earlier. Locomotor pattern clearly explains the abnormal behavior in PTZ group.
The behavioral analysis and locomotor tracking patterns explain that the AEDs helped fish to overcome the PTZ effect and restored usual swimming movements nearly all over the tank. As seen in PTZ treated group the locomotor moment of the fish was observed to be at the bottom most part of the tank and time spent by fish was also more, which is similar to clinical stupor like behavior and anxiety in epileptic condition.
Seizures are the uncontrolled firing of neurons which produces involuntary moment of the body, which could be a partial or generalized type of seizures Berg et al.
Since greater the seizure frequency-duration and severity, it is likely to increase cognitive impairment in patients Inoyama and Meador,. Epidemiological studies reveal that dementia or memory problems is largely a unseen problem and the number is increasing Farooq et al.
However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects.
Used symptoms in migraine: an electronic diary poor. Have blood work resistant as you have been told by the court. The most common verbal plans are electric-shock like or delayed.